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国史日 在马萨诸塞州


Finding sources for your 国史日 project can be both fun 和 challenging! 您将需要使用各种 primary第二手来源 对于你的项目, which will provide the evidence that you will use to build your historical argument 和 create your project. 发展你的知识, NHD recommends that you begin with 第二手来源 和 then move on to primary sources. 你可以从NHD找到更多的信息 比赛规则手册

在这一页, you'll find information on working with primary 和 第二手来源, 如何进行NHD访谈, 和链接,开始你的研究.


准备好开始你的研究了?  看看这个页面 链接到马萨诸塞州的数字档案, 库, 历史的组织, 博物馆, 和其他工具来找到你需要的资源.



Secondary sources are created after 和 about a historical event. Begin building your knowledge of the historical context of your topic by starting your research with 第二手来源 that are written by 可信的作者, such as professional historians, whose work reflects thorough research 和 analysis. Reading 二次 materials prepares you to underst和 和 analyze primary sources from the historical event you are researching. Read as many high-quality 第二手来源 as you can before you look at primary sources. The knowledge you gain from 第二手来源 forms the foundation of your research 和 helps you to analyze the primary sources you find.


  • 历史教科书
  • Articles in professional journals 和 books written by historians
  • 传记
  • 在可信网站上找到的文章


国家历史日 比赛规则手册 defines a primary source as something created during the time period that you are investigating.

A primary source might be someone who experienced the event you are researching, like a diary written by a soldier in the Revolutionary War. A primary source can also be from the time period, like a newspaper, broadside or poster.  最后, a primary source can be an oral history account from someone who lived through your time period 和 remembers it.

Keep in mind that primary sources can come from the time you're researching 和 still show bias or 不正确的信息. Historians use multiple sources from many perspectives to gain a balanced view of the past.


  • 目击者
  • 书面材料, 比如信件, 演讲, 日记, 报纸上的文章, 还有当时的其他文件
  • Verbal testimony, such as oral history interviews with people from the time, 和 oral traditions
  • Visual 和 oral media like TV, movies, music, radio, 和 other recorded materials
  • Images 和 artifacts such as photographs, paintings, drawings, maps, 和 objects from the time
  • Unedited copies of primary materials found on credible internet sites, such as the websites of the 国家档案馆 和 Records Administration 和 the 美国国会图书馆
  • Anything else that provides a first-h和 account about your topic

请查看 新的NHD竞赛规则手册 for more examples of primary 和 第二手来源, as well as how to cite them.

Examples of Primary 和 Secondary Source Materials:

  • A letter written by President Lincoln in 1862 about the Civil War, found on the 国家档案馆 和 Records Administration website, 是一个 primary source.
  • An oral history with a Japanese American who was interned during World War II 是一个 primary source for a project about Japanese internment.
  • An article about the Vietnam War published in 2015, written by a historian who was 不 involved in the war, 是一个 二次 source. By contrast, an interview about the Vietnam War with a Vietnam War veteran 是一个 primary source.

How to Find Primary Sources In Your Secondary Sources

What do you do when you find a great primary source (like a photo, 一个报价, or a work of art) shown in the 二次 source you're reading (like in a textbook or quoted on a website)?  Watch this video 和 learn how to mine those 第二手来源 for great primary sources!


Artificial Intelligence (AI) 和 Your NHD Project

Looking for guidance on how you may use (和 may 不 use) AI tools when creating an NHD project? 看看这个讲义!

Please 不e: This is guidance as of September 2023. NHD will continue to update the guidance as the research 和 technology develops.


Email/Voicemail Template: How Do I Request an Interview?

While interviews are 不 required for an NHD project, oral history interviews often offer unique 和 exciting opportunities to add to your primary sources.  Learn more about interviewing subjects for your NHD project with the NHD面试指南, which has suggestions for developing interview questions, 面试礼仪, 电子邮件模板, 和更多的.

Interviewing an expert who was 不 involved in the event 是一个 form of 二次-source research. 与专家的访谈是 NHD项目所需. NHD does 不 recommend that students interview experts for 二次-source material 和 recommends that students read their written works instead.